Richie Hawtin: El viejo nuevo sonido de Detroit

Por: Daniel Ospina Follow @themockman

En un género tan pródigo en eso de revelar exponentes nuevos y desafiantes como el techno, pocos tienen el reconocimiento de estrella pero a la vez de innovador de Richie Hawtin. Su constante sentido del cambio (ya sea musicalmente o en el uso de equipos cada vez más novedosos) le ha permitido construir una reputación que resistió tendencias como el big beat o la EDM para ser un nombre obligado cuando se habla tanto de la música electrónica en general o del techno, como de la cultura del DJ. Ahora se va a presentar en el Festival Estereo Picnic junto a una cuota electrónica muy diversa que incluye desde propuestas orgánicas como Bob Moses, hasta auténticos ídolos de la producción como deadmau5, pasando por la experiencia integral que puede ser Justice.

Desde que comenzó a pinchar con 17 años en Detroit, no se ha detenido hasta llevar todo eso a un público masivo. Por eso decidimos repasar su trayectoria observando sus lanzamientos bajo seudónimos como F.U.S.E., Plastikman, así como aquellos que lanzó bajo su nombre de pila en su periodo más reciente. Conviene aclarar que una cosa es el Hawtin que escuchamos en los discos, y otra el Hawtin que rompe cualquier fiesta alrededor del mundo. En los discos hay unas necesidades concretas que no se pueden explorar debidamente en las fiestas, por lo cual su obra y legado se hacen más significativas, si cabe.

Los años del hardcore.

La historia de Richie Hawtin comenzó cuando fundó con John Acquaviva el sello +8 (en referencia a la velocidad que le imprimían al pitch cuando estaban en cabina) con el fin de mostrar todo lo que estaba ocurriendo en la escena de Detroit luego de que Juan Atkins, Kevin Saunderson y Derrick May decidieran bien centrar sus esfuerzos en Europa, bien retirarse temporalmente del negocio. Tanto Hawtin como Acquaviva habían crecido escuchando krautrock, música industrial y la EBM, lo que sumado al movimiento baggy que pegaba en Inglaterra por esos días así como el techno de Detroit, terminaría confluyendo en sets oscuros, donde llevar al público a un estado de trance casi que distópico (y sobre todo, a una gran velocidad) terminaría siendo la prioridad. Y claro, eso se conseguía creando canciones que seguían esa línea.

Uno de los primeros lanzamientos de la sociedad se hizo en 1990 bajo el nombre Cybersonik, en un vinilo que solo decía ‘The Future Sound Of Detroit’. Esa proclama incluía en su interior “Technarcy”, un auténtico himno techno a principios de los noventa, que haría llegar su música a Europa. Lo llamativo era que se equiparaba en fuerza al hardcore que pegaba en Europa por esos días, pero ese tono medio ambiental le otorgaba también una frialdad que los ponía en otra liga.

Durante un periodo de año y medio Hawtin sigue lanzando sencillos en +8 como “Substance Abuse” y particularmente uno que lanzó en 1991 junto a dos pesos pesados de la electrónica como son Joey Beltram y Mundo Muzique bajo el nombre Final Exposure. El tema, titulado “Vortex”, básicamente fue la banda sonora de un género que había encontrado al mejor intérprete posible detrás de los platos. Más o menos por esos días adopta el seudónimo de F.U.S.E. (forma abreviada de Futuristic Underground Subsonic Experiments) con el cual seguirá profundizando en esa visión cruda de la electrónica en sencillos como “Dimensions”, lanzado en 1992.

A los pocos meses Hawtin firma con Warp y da avisos de querer hacer su primer álbum largo con el EP ‘Train Tracs’, donde afina los niveles de intensidad que va a conseguir en ‘Dimension Intrusion’, una obra maestra del techno que pone en el mapa a Detroit una vez más, alejándola de las influencias funk que pudiesen tener los pioneros del género (especialmente Kevin Saunderson) y demostrando que en los ritmos fríos y tensos estaba la vía para desenvolverse creativamente en los años noventa.

Junto a temas viejos como “Substance Abuse”, ‘Dimension Intrusion’ tiraba joyas que podían oscilar entre la fuerza bruta de “F.U.” a momentos donde la sencillez es pura inmensidad como “Nitedrive”. Bajos densos, ritmos oscuros o melancolía de esa que sobrecoge, pero la idea de Hawtin siempre era generar un trance en sus sets.

Aunque no tuvo mayor repercusión en los Estados Unidos del grunge, en Europa fue aclamado al punto que Alemania y Holanda forjaron escenas techno alrededor del sonido de ese álbum, pero eso se logro principalmente con el sencillo “Thrash”, lanzado con Cybersonik y para la época el tema más rápida del hardcore techno (iba a 150 bpm). Sin embargo, Hawtin progresivamente se fue hartando de ese primer sonido, al considerar que el consumo de drogas por parte de sus seguidores estaba distorsionando toda su idea alrededor de la música que producía, así como la forma de presentarla, pues cada vez era más frecuente ver que los sets se recortaban, impidiendo que un DJ pudiese llevar a su público a estados de ánimo diferentes cada vez. Eso obligaba a que los sets fuesen siempre dinámicos, cosa con la que Hawtin se mostraba en desacuerdo.

Los años del trance.

Hawtin dio un giro importante a su estilo luego de que en Holanda durante un set escuchara a los asistentes cantar consignas antisemitas que se acostumbraban en el fútbol de ese país. Buscando desmarcarse de esa agresividad definitivamente, su música se fue haciendo minimalista, llegando a encuadrarse por momentos con el IDM pero principalmente buscando una comunión entre el techno de Detroit y el acid house que surgió en Chicago. De allí surge un nuevo seudónimo, Plastikman. Y con él, sencillos como “Krakpot” y “Spaz” que definirán el nuevo rumbo de Hawtin. Ya no se trataba de endurecer el techno, sino de hacerlo más psicodélico. Eso si, cuidando de no perder la intensidad ni el estado de trance que perduraba antes en sus producciones.

Su primer álbum con esa nueva tónica fue ‘Sheet One’ de 1993, lanzado con Novamute Records. Fue un cambio total que lo alejó del hardcore y el gabba que había inspirado en el pasado, poniéndolo más en línea con el trance que comenzaba a pegar en Alemania y plasmándolo a la perfección en temas como “Plasticity”, “Helikopter” y “Glob”. Para el segundo disco, ‘Muzik’ de 1994, Hawtin baja todavía más las revoluciones, ofreciendo experiencias más cercanas al club que a las raves para las que estaba acostumbrado a pinchar hasta entonces. Canciones como “Goo” y “Kriket” incluso incorporaban percusiones distintas a los breakbeats que predominaban en esa época, prolongando esa idea en 1997 con el lanzamiento del sencillo “Sickness”.

Los años del minimal techno.

Para 1998 en ‘Consumed’ decide ponerse aún más minimalista, inspirado por su trabajo ‘CD:96’ lanzado bajo el nombre de Concept 1 donde daba alas al minimal techno, pero a la vez decide recuperar algo del tono oscuro que tenía en sus inicios. Esta vez la recepción fue más dividida, viéndose a muchos críticos de la época acusar a Hawtin de volverse demasiado pretencioso. Eso no le impidió a sencillos como “Locomotion” e “Inside” destacar en ese álbum, tal vez por romper con esa tendencia tan difícil de digerir para el oyente promedio. Ese mismo año lanza otro álbum, ‘Artifakts (BC)’ una especie de compilatorio donde rescata canciones de la época de ‘Muzik’ y de un álbum que nunca terminó Hawtin titulado Klinik. Si bien persiste la lentitud, los beats son más pronunciados que en ‘Consumed’, destacando temas como “Psyk”, “Rekall” o “Are Friends Electrik?” (un guiño a Gary Numan) y hasta lo escuchamos incorporando golpes más tribales en “Hypokondriak”.

En 2003 con su álbum ‘Closer’ incorpora pistas vocales suyas en una serie de temas donde prima el frikismo por encima de cualquier otra cosa. En esa época Hawtin se mete en un rollo que no tiene nada que ver ya con la intensidad o la atmósfera psicodélica con la que comenzó Plastikman, por mucho que canciones como “Ping Pong” o “Mind In Rewind” pudieran evocar algo de ese espíritu. Lo que predominaban eran temas tipo “Mind Encode” o “Slow Poke”, que pueden desorientar bastante cuando se sigue al Hawtin que ponía a bailar multitudes por igual en el club Tressor de Berlín o en la Loveparade con esa idea en mente de hacer “arte” o algo “estético” antes que algo meramente consumible y disfrutable.

A partir de entonces Hawtin dejará de hacer discos y se centrará en su actividad como DJ. Todavía producirá bastantes DJ Mix colaborando con Sven Vath, John Acquaviva o Ricardo Villalobos, así como por su cuenta, pero de pistas nuevas se olvidará hasta 2014, cuando lanza ‘EX’, un álbum inspirado en un set que hizo en el Museo Guggenheim como Plastikman. En él queda reflejada la madurez alcanzada por Hawtin, quien se muestra equilibrado como nunca en los siete temas que conforman el disco. Hay algo de esa tensión oscura y citadina de sus inicios, así como la sensación de trance que domina la mayor parte de su trayectoria musical. Los excesos parecen ser erradicados del todo, pero a cambio la música fluye con naturalidad. “EXtend”, “EXtrude” y “EXhale” son algunos de los momentos más brillantes de un álbum que no tiene canción mala.

Si Richie Hawtin es una leyenda de la electrónica de todos los tiempos, es porque como productor y como DJ siempre se preocupó por dos cosas: dar el mejor show posible, y estar siempre abierto a probar cosas cada vez más retorcidas en sus discos. Que fuese elegido para ser el ultimo artista en tocar durante el Festival Estereo Picnic deja claro que para los organizadores su importancia en la configuración de este mundo lleno de DJs así como su legado en términos creativos siguen allí, esperando por aquel que pueda ir más allá de las listas y dominar el panorama internacional como él lo consiguió durante la primera mitad de los noventa. Ya veremos con qué nos sorprende la ultima noche donde, enfrentado con deadmau5 y Martin Garrix en el horario y en esa constante competencia por saber quien ofrece la mejor fiesta, puede sacar sus garras y darle al Festival un cierre a la altura de las expectativas que tenemos todos ahora mismo.

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